TNA5: Access to CESAR
WP Leader: Herman Russchenberg

Objectives

Name of the infrastructure: Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR)
Location (town, country): Lopik, The Netherlands
Web site address:
www.cesar-observatory.nl
Legal name of organisation operating the infrastructure: Delft University of Technology jointly with the CESAR consortium
Location of organisation (town, country): Delft, The Netherlands
Annual operating costs (excl. investment costs) of the infrastructure (€): 1.330.197

Description of the infrastructure:
CESAR is a consortium of eight institutes (Delft University of Technology, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Netherlands Energy Research Centre, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, Utrecht University and European Space Agency) who join their efforts on both ground based remote sensing observations and in-situ observations of the atmosphere and land surface at the research site Cabauw of the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. The Cabauw site is located in flat terrain (51o 58'N, 4o 56'E, -0.7 a.s.l.) in the centre of The Netherlands. The surrounding area consists mainly of grassland interrupted by narrow ditches. The climate in the area is characterized as a "moderate maritime" with a prevailing southwesterly circulation and precipitation spread over the seasons. The rural area of Cabauw is situated approximately 50 km from the North Sea and is surrounded by densely populated and industrialised areas. The enclosing conurbation, consisting of the four largest Dutch cities (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht) and the surrounding areas, has a population over 10 million. To the east of Cabauw the German Ruhr Area is situated with a population of over 5 million (12 million for the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area) the largest urban agglomeration in Germany. In contrast, north of the Netherlands there is an open connection to the Atlantic Ocean and polar region via the North Sea. Therefore, sequential very clean maritime and much polluted air masses are observed at Cabauw.

The site consists of a 213 m tall meteorological tower, in the basement an aerosol manifold, a remote sensing terrain, a BSRN station and a field for micro-meteorological observations. The observational program of CESAR consists of a core program with long term measurements. In-situ measurements of soil hydrology, surface fluxes of wind, temperature humidity and CO2, the radiation budget, rain, tower based profiles of wind, temperature, humidity, Greenhouse gases at high precision CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and tracers like Radon, H2 and CO are performed. In the frame of EUSAAR, in-situ aerosol observations consist of size distribution (SMPS, APS), aerosol scattering (3λ-nephelometer) and absorption (1λ-MAAP and 7λ-Aethalometer). Moreover, aerosol chemical composition (secondary inorganic aerosol) and CCN concentrations are measured. High quality radiation observations are performed at the BSRN station including AERONET Cimel sunphotometer and GAW-PFR Precision Filter Radiometer. Ground based remote sensing instruments are a Raman lidar (EARLINET), a scintillometer, a 1290 MHz windprofiler/Rass, a HATPRO micro wave radiometer, a 3 GHz Doppler-polarimetric radar, a 35 GHz cloud radar, a lidar system, a spectral UV instrument and a GPS system.

Recently an X-band rain radar was installed at the top of the 200 m tower. The Cabauw site is located 25 km South-West from De Bilt where radiosondes are launched and a C-band Doppler weather radar which covers the area around the CESAR site is operational. Since October 2008 CESAR has been invited to be one of the 12 backbone stations of GRUAN (GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network), currently in implementation. Data collected at CESAR is stored in a database: http://www.cesar-database.nl/. In ACTRIS we will deploy NOx gradient measurements along the tower, next to ACMS aerosol composition and campaignwise PTR-MS and TOF-MS measurements of VOC's and OVOC's. Furthermore we will perform continuous observations of aerosol composition using the Marga-2S system, for gases, SIA and base cations.
Research programmes at the site involves: soil hydrology and water budget; the horizontal structure of rainfall; land-atmosphere interaction; structure of the boundary layer; BSRN radiation; ice, mixed phase, water, and boundary layer clouds spatial and microphysical structures; thermodynamic vertical structure; aerosol radiation interaction; aerosol physical and optical properties; aerosol chemical composition; atmospheric chemical composition. Recently, research groups working at CESAR participated, among others, in the following major programs/projects/networks: GEOMON, MACC, MEGAPOLI, EUSAAR, EUCAARI, PASSODOBLE, ENERGEO, BSRN, AERONET, EARLINET, IMECC, CHIOTTO, CARBOEUROPE-IP, ICOS, GHG-Europe, ACCENT, EMEP-CCC, Cloudnet and Cliwanet.

Modality of access under this project:
The heart of CESAR is a scientific steering committee (SSC) consisting of representatives of the the participating institutes. The SSC will advice on the best way to implement the access request within CESAR. This involves designating a hosting institute (one of the CESAR partners) and coordination of the access with other activities at CESAR. All relevant data of the site are in principle available to the visitor, there are no principle time limits to perform observations at the site as long as it does not interfere with other projects. Support offered under this proposal: In principle a visitor will have two contact points. For the scientific part the CESAR SSC will assign the visitor to one of the CESAR scientists, depending on the field of research. For the technical implementation and access to the site the technical manager of the Cabauw site is the contact point. When the visitor brings in his/her own equipment an assessment will be made on possible interference with running measurements.
Visitors may ask to run the ground based remote sensing instruments in a different mode as compared to normal. It is to the Principal Investigator of the instrument to decide whether this fits in the current observational program. Outreach of new users: CESAR has a high profile when it comes to visibility and relevance in the atmospheric research community. Many international networks have CESAR as one of its members. Especially the combination of abundance of new and state of the art instruments and coupled to that the available expertise makes the use of the site for further research highly attractive in the European context. This is also shown by the number of visiting scientists and international field campaigns over the last few years.

Support offered under this project:
There are typically three services offered by CESAR. 1) using one of the instruments available for a specific experiment; when appropriate, instruments may be requested for operation outside CESAR Observatory, 2) using the surface flux field, the BSRN site, the aerosol inlet manifold, the remote sensing field or the 200 m meteorological mast for equipment brought in by the visitor or 3) using the data of the running observational program. Each visitor will be supervised by an expert scientist and will be assisted by the technical coordinator of the site. Moreover the visitor is offered access to other experts within the CESAR consortium. Included in the service is computer and network infrastructure, and a working place. Access costs are calculated according to the rules set out in section 1.2.2. It is estimated that each year 2 visitors with individual projects will be hosted and that at one time during the I3 a campaign with 16 visitors will be hosted. Each year two times non-standard operations will be performed. As an example in 2008 CESAR hosted the FP7-EUCAARI field campaign IMPACT and in 2009 the GEOMON/NDACC campaign CINDI. Given the broad scope of research themes at CESAR typically each year there is an international campaign and at least 4 individual researchers visit CESAR each year.

Outreach of new users:
CESAR has a high profile when it comes to visibility and relevance in the atmospheric research community. Many international networks has CESAR as one of its members. Especially the combination of abundance of new and state of the art instruments and coupled to that the available expertise makes the use of the site for further research highly attractive in the European context. This is also shown by the number of visiting scientists and international field campaigns over the last few years. The The TNA access opportunities will furthermore be advertized on our website to provide potential new users with timely, comprehensive information on the facilities available as well as the current research activities.

Review procedure under this project:
The selection of users will be performed by a single TNA selection panel and is described under the general ACTRIS procedure in section 2.1.6.

Unit of Access:
One unit of access corresponds to 1 full research person-working day (rwd) by a user accessing the
infrastructure (the minimum acceptable access is half a day). The access includes the use of the general infrastructure, on-site logistic support by the infrastructure staff, as well as technical and scientific support related to the use of the facility and data analysis. A confirmation of visit indicating the total quantity of access per user, countersigned by the access provider, is provided after each access.


 
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